• Farmers and traders had to continue to adapt so they could supply enough produce to meet demand.

  • Mid 1700’s the market place in Sheffield had sprawls of shops and stalls, surrounded by High Street, Swine Market, Bullstake and King Street. Stalls may also have spread beyond the Market Place stretching up High Street to Church Gates. Farmer’s wives would come to the market with baskets of butter and eggs which they would sell standing around the Market Cross.

  • butchers were among the first to be affected by the pressure for change. The problems and nuisance caused by the increased number of animals being driven into the town centre promoted local inhabitants to petition the owner of the markets, Charles Howard the Earl of Surrey, to provide them with a larger market place with better access for animals, carts and pedestrians.

  • 1784 – An Act of Parliament was passed to enlarge the Market Place

  • 1786 – A new market hall, Fitzalan Market, was built on site of the old market and opened on 31 August. 

-Urban, parkland and woodland, agricultural and arable land, moors, meadows and freshwater-based habitats

-Several Hills (100 to 200 meters above sea level)

-Sheffield’s transport infrastructure was also improved.

– In the 18th century turnpike roads were built connecting Sheffield with Barnsley, Buxton, Chesterfield, Glossop, Intake, Penistone, Tickhill, and Worksop.


-1740s a clock maker in  invented a form of the crucible steel process for making a better quality of steel than had previously been available

-There are no assemblies, no theatre, and the principal amusements of the place were the sports at the castle bowling green, and social meeting at the taverns”.

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population: 16,000
geography: 165 miles, very industrial
terrain: flat
layout: mainly industrial buildings, not as many residential areas
available technology: street lamps at the end of the 1700s
how do people get around town: walked or rode horses
what do people do for a living: making textiles
what do people do for food: farm
how long of a journey is it to the capital city: 196.2 miles
how big do families tend to be: 5-6 children
leeds map

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  • divided into two parts- right and left bank
  • right bank was the east and left bank was the west
  • built on a bend of the Garonne River
  • 310 miles southwest of Paris
  • left bank was low-lying and marshy
  • From 1750 to 1790 the population grew from 66,000 to 111,000
  • royal families and the elite ate three course dinners –> first was soups and plates of meat, second was large poultry dishes, vegetables, and salad, third was cheese, fruit, and pastries
  • bordeaux was the home to the 12 prestigious parliaments of France which, along with the merchants, took over the political and cultural parts of the town
  • people traveled using horse-drawn vehicles
  • in 1789, 20,000 people were unemployed
  • common jobs were tailor, wigmakers, watchmakers, iron and cannon manufacturers, and shoemakers
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Florence. Andrea&Brady

Florence, Italy

population- 25,000

geography- near the center of Italy, which is a peninsula. Lies in a basin between hills

terrain- The River Arno is main river that runs through Florence, flat land surrounded by hills

layout- 2 main focus points in the city; cathedral & public area. Many bridges across The River Arno

available technology- bridges and roads <–(1st in Italy)

transportation- roads & boats on the river

typical occupations- farmer, grocer, doctor, tailor, maid

obtainment of food- local market, fishing, farming

distance from capital(rode)- Rome is 172 miles to the south

size of family- small; 3-4 (including parents)

Florence, Italy

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Justin and Alex: Manchester

  • Population- around 10,000
  • Geography- Has many canals and rivers. Located in the northwestern part of England.
  • Terrain- Low hills and plains
  • Layout- Small village that was developing cotton mills.
  • Available technology- Oil Lamps (in the streets), and steam engines.
  • How did people get around?- Through canals, walking, and on horses
  • What did people do for a living?-Worked at cotton mills, fished, cabinet making, and shoe-making
  • What did people do for food?-Buy it from local market
  • How long of a journey is it to the capital?- 160 miles
  • How big did families tend to be?- The average size of a family was around 7 or 8.
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Julian and David: Cesky Krumlov, Czech Republic

  •  Population: 2,508 people
  • Geography: Surrounded by many hills; bottom of Czech Republic; appears to be somewhat isolated; Vltava River runs through it
  • Terrain: Flat; surrounded by Vltava; several bridges; big, open plains
  • Layout: Houses and marketplaces by river; plains used for farming
  • Available Technology: A theater in town; lights; bridges leading out of town
  • How do People Get Around Town: Walking; riding horses
  • What do People do for a Living: Work in theater; farming; shopkeepers
  • What do People do for Food: Farming; buying food from local shops
  • How Long of a Journey is it to the Capitol of the Country: 35 hours walking
  • How Big do Families Tend to be: Not an excess amount of food available, so most had 2 or 3 kids
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Andrew and Kieran: Montpellier, France

population: 29,500

geography: south of France, <10 miles to ocean

Terrain: hilly

Layout: Broad boulevards lined with trees, a large square, elegant buildings

Tech: No running water or street lights

Transport: steam engine

Living: Farmers

Food: crops

Distance to capital: 465 milesImageImage

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Amesbury, Wiltshire, England


  • Distance: 85 Miles from London, England
  • Town design: Mansions built by Seymour family, Nearest railway station is in Grateley. Multiple streets including Main and Second and a constantly developing network of smaller streets
  • Geography: Located on River Avon valley, near Salisbury Plain and water meadows
  • Terrain: Fertile soil for farming, fed by river water
  • Food/way of life: Most people lived through farming (Based near a river)
  • Population: approximately 2,000
  • Technology such as water pumps and steam engines developed here
  • Timeline:
  • C.3100 BC Construction of Stonehenge begins
    C.500 BC Major settlement at Vespasian’s Camp near Amesbury
    600s There is a Saxon settlement by this time
    979 Benedictine nunnery founded
    1086 A royal manor. According to the Domesday book it comprises 70 acres of meadow, areas of pasture and woodland and has 8 mills. The population is between 700 and 900
    1177 Nunnery closed by King Henry II and replaced with a priory serving nuns and monks of the Fontevraldine order. The abbey church, the church of St. Mary and St. Melor, is granted to the priory
    1186 A new Priory church and house completed
    1252 A Thursday market and 3-day fair are granted
    1291 Queen Eleanor of Provence is buried at the Priory
    1317 The Priory is granted a Saturday market and a 3-day fair
    1364 High Street is so named by this time
    Early 1400s Following disputes between the Prior and the Prioress the Priory reverts to a Benedictine nunnery. The church of St. Mary and St. Melor, previously used by the monks, continues as the parish church. A chapel dedicated to All Saints in existence at Ratfyn
    1522 The George Inn in High Street in existence
    1540s Market house built in the Market Place
    1540-1542 Priory dissolved and most of its buildings demolished
    C.1550 Viney’s Farm House built
    1551 Salisbury Street is so named by this time
    1553 The church of St. Mary and St. Melor has four bells at this time
    C.1579 New stocks are made for the town
    1595-1601 Abbey Mansion built on the site of the Priory
    Early 1600s South Mill, containing 2 water driven corn mills, in operation
    1600 Diana House built on the Abbey mansion estate
    1607 Kent House built as a gatehouse on the Abbey mansion estate
    1614 A Wednesday market and 2 new fairs ( on 11 June and 23 December) granted
    1620 There are 6 innkeepers and 3 alehouse keepers in the town
    1660 A new Abbey Mansion built by the Seymour family and designed by John Webb in the Palladian style; from this time there is a pillory and cucking stool in the town
    1672 Thomas Long’s house licensed for Baptist meetings
    1676-1720 Abbey mansion owned by the Bruce family
    1677 John Rose establishes a charity school for 20 children aged 9-15 in the parish church
    Late 1600s The Gauntlett family are producing clay pipes which are renowned nationally
  • Early 1700s Thomas Holland, vicar of Amesbury and inventor of hydraulic engines and pumps, designs an apparatus for extinguishing fires
    1708 Henry Spratt establishes a charity school for 30 children aged 4-9
    1719 Quaker meeting house licensed
    1720-1725 Abbey mansion owned by Lord Carleton
    1725 Abbey mansion bequeathed by Lord Carleton to the 3rd Duke of Queensberry; Richard Harrison establishes a charity offering apprenticeships for up to 5 former pupils of the charity schools
    1735 Charles, Duke of Queensberry, purchases West Amesbury House and begins enlarging and refitting the property
    1751 Fire destroys or damages about 25 building in the High Street
    1759 Market house repaired. There is still a shambles at this time
    1762 Amesbury Turnpike Trust established controlling 62 miles of road; tollhouses built in Stonehenge Road and Countess Road; milestones set up along the main roads
    1766 Independent meeting house licensed
    1771 The town has a fire engine by this time
    1775 Queensberry bridge built by John Smeaton
    1779 John Wesley pays the first of two visits to the town


  • Stonehenge
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Munich, Germany

  • Populations : 24,000 inhabitants. (doubled every 30 years)
  • Geography: Southern Germany near Austria
  • Terrain: Flat, but with mountains like the Alps surrounding it.
  • Layout : Good layout for a city, it had large buildings and churches. (check maps)
  • munich-1700 Marcktzumuenchen
  • Available technology: It did have streets lights ( candles, torches) and water was available throughout the city.
  • How to get around town: Walking or by horses (horse and buggy)
  • Occupations: Church (minister) , Merchant, Mason, Doctor, Tanner, etc
  • Food: Venison, Bread, Ducks, Fruits,  Vegetables
  • Capital Distance: 360 miles
  • Families : tended to be anywhere from 2 or 3 to 10 or more
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Cultural Globalization

Globalization is always occuring, even more so with every generation born. This article gives the example of how you can see the effects of globalization even in something like a cafe- a elderly Muslim women is wearing a headscarf, trying to avoid the television, her son is wearing a very profane shirt and seems mesmorized by Beyonce and MTV, while his wife is trying to control their son and somehow stays glued to her iPhone. This situation would be very different in different time periods of history, had they been in the Middle East, and even in different parts of America.

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